History of Coffee: Part IV – Commercialisation of Coffee

For many connoisseurs, the period from the mid-19th Century to the late 20th Century is the ‘Dark Age’ of coffee. During this era, coffee lost its Middle-Eastern mystical charm and became commercialised and, quite frankly, ordinary.

When coffee was first introduced into Britain during the 17th Century, it was a drink enjoyed by every social class. While the rich would enjoy coffee almost ceremonially in their social clubs, the poor saw coffee as an essential nutrient, a hot drink to replace a hot meal, or hunger suppressant. It was only a matter of time, with the advancement of technology, that large companies would form to take advantage of the coffee commodity.

Traditionally coffee was roasted in the home or in the coffeehouse. A practice imported from the Middle-East was to simply stir-fry green beans in an iron pan over a fire till brown. Some coffeehouses used a more sophisticated method of a cylindrical unit hung above a fire with a handle to rotate the beans inside. Both these methods were only capable of roasting small batches of coffee, a couple of kilos or several pounds at most, which ensured that the coffee was always fresh.

However, with the onset of the industrial revolution and mechanisation, coffee roasting technology soon improved. Commercial coffee roasters were being invented which were capable of roasting much larger batches of coffee. It was now possible for the few to meet the coffee needs of the masses.

It was in the United States where coffee initially started to be commercialised. In 1865, John Arbuckle marketed the first commercially available packages of ground, roasted coffee. His brand, ‘Ariosa’, was sold over a far larger area then any other coffee roaster. Instead of being confined to a small area close to his roasting factory, Arbuckle was able to establish his coffee as a regional brand. Others soon followed suit and, by World War I, there were a number of regional roasters including companies such as Folgers, Hill Brothers, and Maxwell House. These companies offered customers consistent quality and convenient packaging for use in the home, but at a price: freshness. It could be several weeks, or even months, before the end product would reach the customer.

One approach to prolonging the freshness of roasted coffee was to glaze it with a glutinous or gelatinous matter. After the coffee beans had been roasted, a glaze would be poured over them, which would form a hard, protective barrier around the bean. Once such glaze patented by John Arbuckle in 1868, consisted of using: a quart of water, one ounce of Irish moss, half an ounce of isinglass, half an ounce of gelatine, one ounce of white sugar, and twenty-four eggs, per hundred pounds of coffee. Arbuckle experimented with many different glazes over the years, eventually settling on a sugar based glaze. In fact, Arbuckle became such a prolific user of sugar that he entered into the sugar business rather then give a profit to others for the huge quantities he required.

So why were customers willing to buy this coffee? Once ground, coffee quickly loses its flavour and therefore should be consumed as soon as possible (at the very latest within 48 hours). But this was the age of the brand, where consistency ruled king over quality. Local roasters would often produce excellent coffee, but they could also produce foul coffee, occasionally containing a number of adulterations. Customers wanted to trust what they were buying. They wanted their coffee to taste exactly the same, time and time again.

The first coffee brand to come to Britain was Kenco. In 1923, a co-operative of Kenyan Coffee farmers set up a coffee shop in Sloan Square (London), called the Kenyan Coffee Company, to distribute high quality coffee beans around Britain. Their shop proved very popular and their brand of coffee (renamed Kenco in 1962) soon spread throughout the UK.

Worse was to come to the brew known as coffee. As regional roasters grew into national roasters and then into international roasters, their pursuit of profit intensified. Traditionally coffee came from the ‘arabica’ variety of coffee bush. But in the 1850s, the French and Portuguese began to cultivate a different variety of coffee bush, known as ‘robusta’, on the west coast of Africa between Gabon and Angola. Robusta beans were (and still are) cheaper then arabica beans as they are easier to grow and have an inferior flavour. Coffee roasters looking to minimise their production costs started blending robusta beans with arabica beans in increasing quantities. They also used shorter roast times, to reduce weight loss stopping the coffee from fully developing its complex flavour.

However the lowest point for coffee comes with the introduction of instant coffee – a drink bearing little resemblance in taste to actual coffee. Although the first commercially produced instant coffee, called ‘Red E Coffee’, invented by George Constant Washington, an English chemist living in Guatemala, was marketed in 1909, it is Nestlé who are generally attributed with the invention of instant coffee. In 1930, Nestlé were approached by the Instituto do Café (Brazilian Coffee Institute) to help find a solution to their coffee surpluses. They believed that a new coffee product that was soluble in hot water, yet retained its flavour, would help stimulate World coffee sales. After seven years of research and frequent tasting, scientist Max Mortgenthaler finally achieved the desired results and, on 1st April 1938, Nescafé was launched, first in Switzerland and then later in Britain.

Some claim that it was the introduction of commercial television in 1956 that acted as a catalyst to the success of instant coffee in Britain. The commercial breaks were too short a time in which to brew a cup of tea, but time enough for an instant coffee. There is probably some truth to this claim as, by the 1960s, the majority of the tea industry started producing tea bags, an invention by Thomas Sullivan over half a century earlier (1904). Tea bags were seen as more convenient, simpler and quicker to use then traditional loose leaf tea and so could compete against instant coffee.

The coffee industry soon realised the association between commercial breaks and coffee drinking and started investing heavily in television advertising. Probably the most famous series of coffee advertisements were made for Nescafé Gold Blend. First aired in 1987, these advertisements focused on the sexual chemistry between a couple, played by Anthony Head and Sharon Maughan, acted out in a mini soap opera. The advertisements gripped the whole nation, featuring as frequently as Eastenders or Coronation Street as topics of conversation. This original series of advertisements ran for ten years, increasing sales of Gold Blend by 40% in the first five years (there were two further, less successful, sets of advertisements with different actors). Such was the profile of these advertisements, that they even featured as a news article on the ‘News at Ten’.

With the coffee industry focused on price rather then quality, it was little wonder that coffee sales became stagnant. Coffee drinking was now more about a caffeine fix rather then about savouring the taste, to be drunk in a break from work, rather then to be enjoyed over conversation or while reading the newspaper. Unsurprisingly the younger generations born in the 70s and 80s turned their back on bitter coffee, preferring sugary soft drinks such as Coca Cola and Pepsi for their caffeine kicks.

Let’s Talk About Some of the Chemistry in Our Food

We may define a food to be any substance which will repair the functional waste of the body, increase its growth, or maintain the heat, muscular, and nervous energy. In its most comprehensive sense, the oxygen of the air is a food; as although it is admitted by the lungs, it passes into the blood, and there re-acts upon the other food which has passed through the stomach. It is usual, however, to restrict the term food to such nutriment as enters the body by the intestinal canal. Water is often spoken of as being distinct from food, but for this there is no sufficient reason.

Many popular writers have divided foods into flesh-formers, heat-givers, and bone-formers. Although attractive from its simplicity, this classification will not bear criticism.

Flesh-formers are also heat-givers. Only a portion of the mineral matter goes to form bone.

Water forms an essential part of all the tissues of the body. It is the solvent and carrier of other substances.

Mineral Matter or Salts, is left as an ash when food is thoroughly burnt. The most important salts are calcium phosphate, carbonate and fluoride, sodium chloride, potassium phosphate and chloride, and compounds of magnesium, iron and silicon.

Mineral matter is quite as necessary for plant as for animal life, and is therefore present in all food, except in the case of some highly-prepared ones, such as sugar, starch and oil. Children require a good proportion of calcium phosphate for the growth of their bones, whilst adults require less. The outer part of the grain of cereals is the richest in mineral constituents, white flour and rice are deficient. Wheatmeal and oatmeal are especially recommended for the quantity of phosphates and other salts contained in them. Mineral matter is necessary not only for the bones but for every tissue of the body.

Organic Compounds are formed by living organisms (a few can also be produced by chemical means). They are entirely decomposed by combustion.

The Non-Nitrogenous Organic Compounds are commonly called carbon compounds or heat-producers, but these terms are also descriptive of the nitrogenous compounds. These contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only, and furnish by their oxidation or combustion in the body the necessary heat, muscular and nervous energy. The final product of their combustion is water and carbon dioxide (carbonic acid gas).

The Carbohydrates comprise starch, sugar, gum, mucilage, pectose, glycogen, &c.; cellulose and woody fibre are carbohydrates, but are little capable of digestion. They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion to form water, the carbon alone being available to produce heat by combustion. Starch is the most widely distributed food. It is insoluble in water, but when cooked is readily digested and absorbed by the body. Starch is readily converted into sugar, whether in plants or animals, during digestion. There are many kinds of sugar, such as grape, cane and milk sugars.

The Oils and Fats consist of the same elements as the carbohydrates, but the hydrogen is in larger quantity than is necessary to form water, and this surplus is available for the production of energy. During their combustion in the body they produce nearly two-and-a-quarter times (4 : 8.9 = 2.225) as much heat as the carbohydrates; but if eaten in more than small quantities, they are not easily digested, a portion passing away by the intestines. The fat in the body is not solely dependent upon the quantity consumed as food, as an animal may become quite fat on food containing none. A moderate quantity favours digestion and the bodily health. In cold weather more should be taken. In the Arctic regions the Esquimaux consume enormous quantities. Nuts are generally rich in oil. Oatmeal contains more than any of the other cereals (27 analyses gave from 8 to 12.3 per cent.)

Vegetable Acids are composed of the same three elements and undergo combustion into the same compounds as the carbohydrates. They rouse the appetite, stimulate digestion, and finally form carbonates in combination with the alkalies, thus increasing the alkalinity of the blood. The chief vegetable acids are: malic acid, in the apple, pear, cherry, &c.; citric acid, in the lemon, lime, orange, gooseberry, cranberry, strawberry, raspberry, &c.; tartaric acid, in the grape, pineapple, &c.

Proteids or Albuminoids are frequently termed flesh-formers. They are composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and a small quantity of sulphur, and are extremely complex bodies. Their chief function is to form flesh in the body; but without previously forming it, they may be transformed into fat or merely give rise to heat. They form the essential part of every living cell.

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Factors To Consider When Renting Apartments

There are a number of different apartments that you will be able to see within the city. The apartments that are available in the city are mostly rented by the job seekers. It is very important for them to be able to find a place to stay in the metro whereon the big companies are located. Doing follow-ups in the jobs that they are applying can be done once they are within the proximity if the metro. Saving some money and time can be achieved by them if they do this one.

Being within the city where you will be working is very important especially if you are still applying for jobs. The moment that you will get the job, then you will find it easier to adjust. You should be considering some things before you will make any kind of decision. When looking for apartment for rent, there are factors that you should consider and we will be talking about them I this article.

The very first thing that you should consider when looking for an apartment for rent is the budget that you have. Make it a point that you will look for an apartment that will fit the budget that you have. A smaller space would be great if you are just starting out. A toilet, a kitchen and a space for your bed is what you should be looking for. When you are just starting out, then you should make it a point not to be choosy of the space that you will get. Any leaks and damages should be checked by you when looking for an apartment. The moment that your income will increase, then that is the time that you can look for a larger space.

The next thing that you should also look into is the safety of the location. Choosing the location of the apartment that has no criminals in the area is critical no matter how simple or small the apartment that you are going to rent. In order to do this, you can check with the local police about the crime rate if that particular place. It is very crucial that the streets that you will be walking into especially at night will be safe. By using the records that you will get, you need to check every information especially if you know that the area has a high crime rate.

Another thing that you should do is to be ready with your own records.

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How to Get Rid of Fat Without Surgery

Obesity is a really bad problem that hundreds of people suffer from. Obesity is actually very deadly and can cause all sorts of sicknesses and diseases. Examples of the sicknesses you can have if you are obese are high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and heart attacks. Obesity is really a problem and many people are trying to find ways to get rid of their fats. However, if you are not into fat reduction by surgery, there are 3 options you can take. These 3 options are non-surgical fat reduction procedures. Here are the 3 types of non-surgical fat reduction procedure that you can consider.

One non surgical way to reduce fats is through the famous ultrasound. You are probably wondering how on earth ultrasound can get rid of fats. You have to think of the ultrasound like sunlight igniting paper through a magnifying glass. This is basically how an ultrasound works and this is why fats can be burned. Just imagine the sunlight is the ultrasonic waves; when they reach the paper, the paper starts burning, so also, when the ultrasound hits the fats, they start burning up. However, this procedure is completely safe because only the fats in the focus points will be burned, just like with the sunlight, magnifying glass, and paper. Also, because your skin is not focused on, it will not burn and thus is safe from harm.

Another way one can get rid of fats the non surgical way is through cryoliposlys. This treatment is done by disrupting your fats by adding a controlled frostbite. The controlled frostbite will freeze your fats until the fats will later on die and will be absorbed by your body over time. It depends on how much fats you want to eliminate for the procedure to be completed. Again, your skin will not be touched because the controlled frostbite will only freeze fats.

3. And finally, the last non-surgical fat reduction procedure that we will be talking about today is the injection lipolysis, also known as mesotherapy. This type of procedure is actually still very new and there are still very many studies that are going around it. If you are afraid of injections then you should probably opt for one of the methods above; mesotherapy involves the use of an injection; your fats will be sucked out of your body through this injection. This procedure seems really good because it is really easy but of course you will have to get an expert to do it.

Looking how you can get rid of fats quickly? Don’t want to have to go through surgery? These three methods may just be what you are looking for. Hope this article helped you.

Gevalia Coffee Maker – Committed to Great Coffee Making at Home

If you have a Gevalia coffee maker, you have access to great coffee even when you’re at home. These great coffee making machines are brought to us by Gevalia Kaffe, one of the most well-known companies in the world of coffee. The roots of Gevalia Kaffe can be traced back to Sweden. Over its more than one hundred years of existence, the company has managed to build a reputation of providing coffee beans and teas of unsurpassed quality.

During the amount of time that they have been serving coffee lovers worldwide, they have met countless coffee needs with the main focus of their business: true and genuine coffee beans. But as experts in the coffee industry, they eventually expanded their product list to include high-quality coffee makers optimized for brewing of perfect-tasting coffee.

Why You’ll Like Gevalia Coffee Makers

A Gevalia coffee maker can win out over other types of coffee makers hands down, and there are plenty of reasons why. The first reason lies with Gevalia’s very own brewing method which ensures that the rich coffee flavor is extracted from ground coffee. That’s why coffee lovers dig coffee produced by a Gevalia coffee maker. Such coffee has a great, rich taste that characterizes what coffee should truly be. And to make coffee even better, Gevalia recommends their proprietary coffee beans.

They also have a wide variety of coffee recipes that you can enjoy for an ultimate coffee making experience. Aside from their secret brewing recipe and their secret coffee recipes, Gevalia also produces state-of-the-art coffee makers equipped with great features like automatic off and a programmable timer for your convenient use.

The coffee makers also come with the special pause and serve feature, which a lot of coffee drinkers find very convenient and useful. This feature allows you to pour your cup of coffee anytime, even at the middle of a brewing cycle. This means that you don’t have to wait until an entire brewing cycle is completed. Once there’s coffee in the pot, you can have it. And for easy and fuss-free maintenance, Gavelia coffee maker models have removable baskets and can be fitted with paper filters. Paper filters also help in optimizing the extraction of flavor from ground coffee, so a Gevalia coffee maker that uses this disposable paper filter concept will certainly churn out better coffee.

And since maintenance is a breeze, you can be sure that the coffee maker stays in top shape for a long time, and when it’s in top shape, it can certainly give you nothing but the best-tasting coffee around. Gevalia coffee makers also attract a lot of buyers courtesy of their great-looking appearances. They use a combination of mostly black and white in most of their models.

Special Treat from Gevalia

As a special treat, with every Gevalia coffee maker you buy, you can also avail of a special mug from Gevalia Kaffee. The mug is part of the package of some Gevalia coffee maker models. When buying a Gevalia coffee maker, you have a lot of models to choose from. You can choose from small-capacity coffee makers as well as large-capacity ones that can brew up to twelve cups at once. You can also choose from the standard models priced at a modest level of around $60, and you can also choose more expensive packages if you desire. If you’re in luck, you can also catch some of Gevalia’s great promotions online that can even win you a free coffee maker.

In fact, you can win products like Gevalia’s great 12-cup coffee maker with a programmable timer. As long as you agree to the terms and conditions as well as the shipping details, then you can get your Gevalia coffee maker completely for free. No other company is more bent on giving you excellent coffee brewed right in your own home so as to just give you a free coffee maker but Gevalia Kaffe.
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With all these, it is clear that Gevalia is one of the best companies in the coffee business and in the art of coffee making. Homemakers will surely find a lot to like about Gevalia coffee makers.

You can find more about the Gevalia Coffee Maker on our Best Coffee Makers website.

Copyright 2008 Coffee-maker-guide.com, all rights reserved.

Without oil, the fish can be cooked, how come?

DURING this to get a level of maturity in fish, of course, you use oil for frying, there is now a way that can be done, without using oil.

“To cook the fish, do not ever use oil but to use other materials, then you can do it, do I just use salt water,” said Heriyanto, Executive Chef at the Millennium Hotel Okezone when met at the Millennium Hotel, Tanah Abang, Central Jakarta.

According to him, the use of salt water fish will easily mature, because salt has a high compound to make the body of the fish so hard.

Well, to make it, then simply soak the fish with salt water use, with size 50 tablespoons water, and just one tablespoon of salt, then soak the fish for 30 minutes.

“With salt water soaked, then the texture of the fish will be hard to change,” he continued.

After soaking the fish removed, then cleaned the fish, then cut the fish to taste. New you can eat.

In mature fish using salt water, then do not use warm water, as hot water will kill the bacteria in fish meat, the freshness factor was so lost.

Similarly, using cold water, because cold temperatures will cause freezing, as cold curing properties.

“Simply use water temperature of 20 degrees Celsius, equivalent to room temperature,” he concluded.

Set Your Own Standards for Fitness

The subject of physical fitness comes up daily everywhere you look There are dozens of movies featuring a stalwart young man or woman working out to the maximum to gain entry into the 5K Triathlon, or the Olympic downhill slalom ski race. These special young people want something more from the fitness principle than just the action or the doing of it. They want a good-looking body with no lumps or bumps around the midsection or flab in the hips. (more…)

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Shilajit Facts – Energy Medicines And Shilajit

Shilajit is basically a concentrated plant that has been here on the earth for centuries, the yare originally from the Himalayan region. The raw form of Shilajit is still a strong mineral wax. Shilajit is a medical plant that has vegetable organic matter and vegetable fibers that are helpful for the body, this medicinal herb is also gummy in texture. This type of nectar is really a helpful ingredient for healing because it has various vitamins and minerals present in the shilajit that is beneficial for the body.

The Eastern world also has the need of this shilajit medicine because it has been centuries that hey used shilajit in curing some illness in the body and it has dealt with these illnesses properly. Shilajit has become a major factor in helping people get that strong young body even if they have already gone pass their prime. The shilajit is perfect for remedies, you can choose to use it alone or doing some combination with other plant medicines.

Shilajit is advantageous because it is a natural substance, it has no chemical mixtures so meaning it has no side effects. They have also measured the energy changes in shilajit and they have discovered that it is actually stronger than any other vitamin or other herbal medicines. Shilajit has the strongest vibratory field than any other non-shilajit substance known to man.
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The body needs something to balance its system inside and that is why shilajit is important for the human body because it has potent vibrational energy that will help with balancing these systems. The medicine is useful in balancing the inner system of the body and help regulate the cellular matter in a human being’s system. Adding shilajit to your normal vitamin and mineral intake will greatly enhance the ability to help provide mineral and vitamin.
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Shilajit is a natural substance that helps the body get more minerals and vitamins, it will also help with the healing properties that a person will need that is why herbal medicine like shilajit is beneficial for people.

Shilajit has different types of shilajit elements, they have gold, silver, iron, and copper. These elements have their own specific property that will help in adding help to the body. Iron shilajit according to researchers is the strongest type.

Shilajit is already tested to be helpful because it has several factors that can help with the balance inside the bodies system, it can help with adding positive elements to the body, speeding up the healing process of a person as well as giving out curative properties to help get rid of illnesses. That is why if you chose to use shilajit, you will not regret it.

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Shilajit: Natural Herbal Cure and Its Benefits

The interest in the natural herb known as Shilajit has been slowly increasing over the years. Shilajit is an ancient and natural health supplement in India, but you may ask yourself, what exactly is Shilajit? Well typically, Shilajit is not an herb but a substance, and this substance comes from the mountain regions of Himalaya, specifically oozing from the rocks in the high altitudes of the region. Shilajit contains a lot of nutrients and minerals, specifically humic, fulvic and amino acids, as well as traces of organic vitamins and trace elements. Some studies say that Shilajit is and organic plant matter that has been trapped in the rocks and has long since been decomposed and concentrated. There are also legends and myths surrounding this ayurvedic substance such as Shilajit being the blood itself of the Himalayan mountains, or that it was a substance that is considered the nectar and gift of the gods to mankind.

As with most herbs and natural remedies nowadays, Shilajit claims to cure a lot of illnesses and maladies faced by people today.

One of the many problems we face today that Shilajit claims to cure is the problem of premature ejaculation in men. Another common problem in men that Shilajit also claims to cure is the problem of impotence or erectile dysfunction. Now, Shilajit can occur the above illnesses because of the claim that Shilajit can improve the blood flow or circulation in our body parts. Another reason why this herb is the ideal supplement for men to take is because Shilajit can supposedly make your erection last for a long time.

Among the many effects Shilajit has, it also claims to help regulate a person’s blood sugar levels. Thus making the herb an ideal supplement also to take for people with diabetes. Shilajit also claims to help stimulate our pancreas’ ability to secrete insulin to help aid in glucose metabolism.

Urinary problems are also a malady most people face today that Shilajit claims to cure. Shilajit can help tone up our kidneys and urinary bladders in order to effectively eradicate any problems related to our excretory systems. Shilajit is also known for its anti-diuretic properties, helping it aid in the excretion of toxins in our bodies. Along with this effect that Shilajit has, it can also help to treat the removal of kidney stones in our bodies. This is because Shilajit works through the use of breaking any kidney stones into smaller parts, thereby making it easier for our body to remove them.

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Getting Down To Basics with Options

Where To Start with Cards and More

4 Tips to Consider When Choosing a Credit Card Payment System Managing daily sales, accounts receivables and reducing debt are some of the responsibilities you may have as a business owner. One of the ways in which you can improve daily sales and cash flow management is by using electronic payments. However, do you know how to choose the right merchant account provider? When you decide to accept credit card or echeck payments, or want a new payment provider, consider the following: Check for Payment Integration Check whether the payment processor you want to install can integrate with your existing accounting, enterprise resource planning (ERP) system can customer relationship management (CRM) system. A number of payment processors have plugins that can be used to integrate various business solutions. Some of the benefits of managing your business activities from a single interface include saving time and money. Moreover, the probability of double-entry errors are reduced through integration. Improved Reconciliation Management Your business may accept payments for goods or services through multiple ways. Regardless of the ways you accept payment, it’s important to have a robust and detailed reporting for your business from a centralized location. You can scout the market for payment processing solutions that provide robust reporting options. These processors are developed to be bother a gateway provider as well as a processor.
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The information on your customers’ credit cards is transmitted for processing through the payment gateway. You can see the information passed in any transaction if your payment processor offers application programming interfaces (APIs). You can customize the information that will be reported through the API.
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ECheck Payments Echecks work like paper checks in that they transmit the customer’s bank routing information or checking account number for processing. One of the benefits of using echecks is that it simplifies your business. With echecks, you can pay loans, mortgages, rent, and other bills. Some businesses also use echecks to make direct deposits to the employees. Using echecks helps to save time and eliminate the costs related to traditional checks. Using echecks helps to increase profits, lowers costs and leads to better customer service. Fraud Prevention Tools Another important consideration is the security offered by the credit card payment processing company. Since customers will be trusting you with their credit card data, it’s important to ensure the data will be safe. A payment gateway that has robust security and fraud prevention tools will keep your customers’ data safe. The tools can block high risk credit card payment and hence ensure you do not become liable for transactions made using stolen credit cards. The above are some of the things you should consider when looking for a payment gateway processor.